7 Pivotal Steps of HACCP: Ensuring Food Safety in Your Business

Discover the seven steps of HACCP implementation, a systematic approach to food safety that will help you safeguard your business and protect your customers.
September 22, 2023

In Canada's food sector, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) framework serves as an indispensable tool for proactively managing risks and assuring food safety. A proper grasp and deployment of HACCP can enhance consumer protection, meet regulatory requirements, and positively impact your business standing.

Let's delve into the quintessential steps to bring HACCP into your food business effectively.

Step 1: Embark on a Comprehensive Hazard Analysis

The initiation of your HACCP journey begins with an exhaustive Hazard Analysis. In this phase, it's imperative to pinpoint and evaluate potential safety hazards that could adversely affect food quality. A robust Hazard Analysis provides a structured approach to quantify the level of risk and to design effective hazard control measures.

Upon hazard identification, it's crucial to assess the severity and likelihood of each hazard, prioritizing them accordingly. This allows you to allocate resources and control measures most effectively to mitigate risks.

Step 2: Identify the Critical Control Points (CCPs)

In HACCP’s second phase, it’s vital to identify the Critical Control Points (CCPs) within your food processing chain. These are junctures where interventions can be most effectively deployed to control or mitigate hazards. An in-depth knowledge of each stage of your operations is crucial to determine these pivotal points accurately.

CCPs may vary depending on the scale and type of your food business. For instance, in a restaurant, points like cooking, refrigeration, and even food display may become CCPs. Conversely, in a manufacturing context, CCPs could span from raw material sourcing to waste management.

Step 3: Set Defined Critical Limits

The next step involves defining Critical Limits. These are explicit, measurable criteria, such as temperature, pH, or time, aimed at ensuring the control or reduction of identified hazards. Establishing robust Critical Limits enables a framework within which food safety is maintained.

Whether it's setting temperature parameters for perishable goods in a grocery store or time limits for food delivery, scientifically substantiated Critical Limits are key to hazard management.

Step 4: Implement Monitoring Protocols for CCPs

The fourth stage in HACCP adoption is the sustained monitoring of Critical Control Points. This can be achieved through regular data collection and observation, helping to ensure that Critical Limits are consistently met. Timely monitoring enables early detection of any discrepancies or deviations from set limits.

Automated systems can be highly effective for this purpose, providing real-time metrics, while manual checks may require trained staff to diligently record data in designated logbooks.

Step 5: Develop and Enact Corrective Measures

Establishing Corrective Actions is the fifth step in HACCP implementation. These actions are protocols developed to handle deviations from Critical Limits or unanticipated hazards that may emerge during food production. When a limit is surpassed, immediate action is imperative to resolve the issue, avert further harm, and reinstate food safety.

Well-documented procedures are essential for guiding employees on suitable actions when such deviations occur. For instance, if a fridge storing perishable goods malfunctions, causing the temperature to exceed the safe range, the Corrective Action could entail:

  • Promptly removing affected products from the sales floor.
  • Transferring these items to a functional fridge or cold storage area.
  • Evaluating the degree of temperature deviation and its potential impact on product quality and safety.
  • Undertaking a comprehensive inspection of the fridge to pinpoint and fix the problem, such as repairing or replacing the malfunctioning unit.
  • Observing the impacted products for signs of spoilage or contamination.
  • Informing relevant staff members and offering training or reminders about proper refrigeration techniques.
  • Revising standard operating procedures to avert similar future incidents.
  • Recording the Corrective Actions undertaken, including date, time, personnel involved, and any subsequent steps.

Step 6: Engage in System Verification

The sixth step is system Verification. This critical phase confirms that your HACCP plan is effectively meeting its intended goals. Methods for verification can include internal reviews, external audits, or lab tests. This helps in highlighting any existing vulnerabilities in your HACCP system, prompting timely adjustments.

Step 7: Maintain Thorough Documentation

Lastly, diligent record-keeping is essential for compliance and continuous improvement. It's crucial to keep accurate logs of Hazard Analysis results, monitoring data, Corrective Measures, and verification activities. This not only aids in traceability but also serves as compliance evidence for regulatory bodies.


Having journeyed through the seven integral steps of HACCP, you are well-equipped to implement this structured approach to food safety in your Canadian business. HACCP's success hinges on a collaborative organizational culture focussed on ongoing vigilance and improvement.

Invest in educating your workforce and be proactive in updating your HACCP practices. Your commitment to food safety will not only benefit your business but will also resonate with your customers, ensuring their well-being and trust.